Learn about European Naturopathic Healing Methods

european foot reflexology

You find for a limited time the this old seminar booklet for the basic seminar.

When  reading this, you will find, that european foot reflexology is much different from the way,  Foot Reflexology is taught and practiced in the US.

That is why I pre-publish  seminar contents  at all-

to give you an idea what 's possible with "just pressing the feet"

European Foot Reflexology


History of Reflexology                            

Development of Reflexology in Europe                                     

Zone Grid ( Fitzgerald )                          

The Sitting Body in the Feet (Marquardt)                 

How to perform a Treatment                            

Grip Sequence                                       

Thumb-walking and Holding 

Frequency of Foot Reflexology Treatments                      



european foot reflexology

- Anatomy
- Location of a zone
- Interpretation of abnormal zones
- How to treat abnormal zones
- What you may expect in the 2nd semianr

....this will be the structure of the revised seminar booklet

In 1976, I just had finished my studies of naturopathy and was licensed as a "Heilpraktiker" (naturopath) , when I was looking for some other appropriate therapies, that I could offer my patients to-be. In the course of my studies I had read the book by Hanne Marquardt "Reflexzone Therapy of the Feet" and I found it too good to be true. So the book  rested on my bookshelf  for some months. In January 1976 a friend of mine, who worked as a massage therapist in a   hospital came to see me. She told me about the wonderful results she had seen, her colleague doing foot reflexology on patients. So she persuaded me to accompany her to the first foot reflexology seminar. In the course of the seminar, we had a chance to work on each other's feet. I was amazed how exact the findings of my feet matched with my state of health -  which at that time was not very stable.
 I came home as a believer! 
In the following weeks, while I was still looking for a place for my new office, I took every chance I could get, to work on different people's feet, and again, I found everything true - that the feet indicate what is wrong  with the body, and that Foot Reflexology could help with many problems. So I went on with seminar # 2 after some months of experience, and learned how to treat hand-zones,  in case  the feet are not available. Also with these new techniques, it was amazing how easy it was,  to gather information and  help people with their various health problems.

In 1977 I learned,  that a student of Hanne Marquardt, Walter Froneberg, had found out that there were not only zones for organs and bones, but also for muscles and nerves. I took his classes  and learned how to work specifically on muscles and nerves. In his last course we learned even to influence the
autonomous nervous system, the lymphatic system and the pelvic ligaments. After having learned all that, my success rate went up to 85 % - an incredible rate in the field of alternative medicine.
 In 1988 I married my husband Klaus and moved to Santa Cruz, CA. After obtaining a Massage Practioner License, I opened my business under the name of “european foot reflexology”

I called my way of doing Foot Reflexology “European”, because it differed a great deal from what was known in America as Foot Reflexology.

In 1991 I started teaching European foot reflexology, already including my new technique of the “reaction pulse”

From my experience of more than 30 years,  I may say, that Foot Refloxology, applied by a well trained person, is an excellent auxiliary  diagnostic tool as well as a very successful holistic treatment

History of Foot Reflexology

Dr. Fitzgerald

It was a long way to get from the "Zone Therapy" to the Foot Reflexology of today.

Dr. William Fitzgerald, the founder of Zone Therapy, was born in Middletown, USA in 1872. He graduated in medicine from the University of Vermont in 1895 and spent some years in hospitals in Vienna, Paris and London. He later practiced in the hospital for Diseases of the Ear, Nose and Throat in Hartford Conn. Later moved his office  to New York. He died in Stamford, USA in 1942.

Developing the work of Dr. H Bressler, Dr. Fitzgerald came to Vienna in the early years of the last century to consider the possibility of treating organs through pressure points. In his book "Zone Therapy" he makes some interesting remarks about it's history:

"A form of treatment by means of pressure points was known in India and China 5000 years ago. This knowledge appears however to have been lost or forgotten. Perhaps it was set aside in favor of acupuncture, which emerged as the stronger growth from the same root."

In central European countries  similar methods were described in 1582 by Dr Adamus and Dr. A'Tatis. At about the same time Dr. Ball of Leipzig published a manuscript on the treatment of separate organs of the body by means of pressure points. The great Florentine sculptor Cellini (1500-1571) used strong pressure on his fingers and toes to relieve pain anywhere in his body with remarkable success.
The 20th American President, W. Garfield (1831-1881) was able to alleviate the pain he had following an assassination attempt,  by applying pressure to various points in his feet. No other pain-killing medicines gave him so much relief.
 The relationship between reflex points and the internal organs of the body was known by various North American Indian tribes and used in the treatment of diseases. This knowledge has been passed on through many centuries, and is still used in Indian Reservations for the relief of pain. Evidently, sick people, at least in Europe, Asia and America, have intuitively discovered numerous points, where pressure could be applied to bring about certain known effects on other parts of the body, and have used them in the relief of their diseases.
In 1916, Dr. Edwin F Bowers first publicly described the treatment propounded by Dr. Fitzgerald and called it Zone Therapy. It contained therapeutic proposals and recommendations for doctors, dentists, gynecologists, Ear, Nose and Throat specialists and chiropractors.

Dr. George Starr White in 1925 stated:
"The fact, that today the Zone Therapy is known probably more widely throughout the United States and all places where magazines and newspapers are printed than any other single method of therapy, proves that the foundation of this work is solid" Dr. Fitzgerald gave seminars and was working with  some other practitioners. Diagrams of the zones of the feet and the corresponding division of the ten zones of the body appeared in his first edition of his book. He was not to know, that he was thereby handing an Indian folk medicine, and giving it scientific respectability.

Eunice Ingham
Basics of Foot Reflexology

The groundwork to Foot Reflexology of today has thus been laid when the American masseuse, Eunice Ingham, started her training in this discipline. She spent years gaining insight into the manner of its working . The diagrams and accounts of those around her, allied to her own practical observation, served to form the basis for her "pressure massage" to the feet. As a result of this wide experience, Eunice Ingham played her part in putting Reflex Zone Therapy "on it's feet", concentrating her attention and knowledge on the small surface of the feet.

She developed a special subtle method of massage, which she called the “Ingham method of compression massage”, which she described in her book "Stories the feet can tell". Her original massage "as though one was refining sugar crystals in one's hand" was continually being altered and improved during her many years of practice.

Hanne Marquardt
Systemizing the reflexology and creating the vision of the  Sitting Body in the Feet

Since  1958, Hanne Marquardt, who had read Eunice Inghams book and had been trained in the method by Eunice Ingham herself,  is working with this method. She systemized the foot reflexology card in so far, as she visualized "the sitting body in the feet" and gives classes since 1967 to all kind of medical professionals. 

Walter Froneberg 
Zones for muscles, nerves, lymphatic system and the autonomous nervous system.
Manual neurotherapy

One of Hanne Marquards students, the late Walter Froneberg , developed that method in so far, that he empirically found zones relating to muscles, nerves incl. the autonomous nervous system, the circulatory system and the lymphatic-system and pelvic ligaments. He gave classes since 1976 . He also emphasized much more on a special technique, that proved to be much more effective than the original rubbing and squeezing technique.

Ulla Meyerhof
Reaction pulse, Zones for the forearm and hands

I learned from Hanne Marquardt and Walter Froneberg in several seminars everything that was to know at this time about Foot Reflexology.  After I had worked for some years with the Marquardt and Froneberg technique, I found out, that these techniques were sometimes too “overwhelming” for my patients. I noticed, that at a certain stage of the treatment, there was a faint “reaction pulse” , when a zone was “done”. When I went past that sign, I was overwhelming the patients, did I not get the reaction pulse, I did get not the results,  that  I could have expected. So, after a while working with these new findings, I integrated watching for the reaction pulse into my work and taught it in my seminars.

1990, Christine Issels, a medical journalist describes my new technique in her book “Reflexology: Art, Science and History”

Zones for the Forearm and Hands:
Working for some years with Foot reflexology, I had a patient with complete numbness in the fingers. I worked the known parts down to the elbow and , by trying to adopt the picture of the sitting body in the feet, I found that there were the missing zones for underarm and hands just lateral on the below the ankles. Working the complete nerve line from the neck to the fingertips, the patient regained her sensitivity in her fingertips . There were a lot of treatments to be done, until I was sure, that I had discovered the missing zones for the forearm and hand.

JoAnn Tennent
Zones for calves and feet
JoAnn was first my patient, then my student in 1991,  and is now my friend and highly esteemed colleague in teaching foot reflexology. She found the missing zones for the calves and feet. These findings made the “body map” complete. Thank you, JoAnn.

The Zone Grid Due to Dr. Fitzgerald's findings there is a division of the body into 10 vertical zones.


Zone grid picture
.......  in the seminar booklet only

According to Dr. Fitzgerald the body is divided into 10 equal vertical zones in which are incorporated all the organs of the head and the trunk, by imaginary lines which are drawn through the head, arms, hands, trunk, legs and feet.   This vertical division of the body is useful to work on reflex zones on the feet, as it provides an anatomical-topographical aid.

The Zone Grid of the Feet ..........in the seminar booklet only

Around 1970 Hanne Marquardt developed another grid-theory by finding, that there were also horizontal lines which divide the body in 3 horizontal sections as there are: the shoulder girdle, the lower costal margin and the pelvic floor. I go even further and divide the body and feet into 4 horizontal sections, including the diaphragm line.
 With the help of this vertical-horizontal framework the organs of the body are found lying in one of its four main compartments: 

1.  the structure of the head and neck lie above the horizontal line drawn along the Shoulder Girdle

2.  the thorax limited above by the shoulder girdle and below by the diaphragm line

3.  the upper abdomen with its organs lies within the region bounded by the horizontal lines of the diaphragm line above,  and the waist-line below 

4.  the organs of the lower  abdomen and pelvis lie within the region bounded by the horizontal lines of the waistline above and the pelvic floor below. 

 How to find zones with the Zone Grid
.....in the seminar booklet only

To find certain points of the body on the feet, this zone grid is a very helpful medium.   The vertical body zones divide the feet from the heel to the toes into 10 fields, which correspond to the 10 zones of the body, in which are incorporated all the organs from the head and trunk. The horizontal body zones divide the feet in 4 sections.  Generally, the reflexzone to an organ occupies the same horizontat and vertical body zones in the feet, as that organ occupies in the body.  Examples:

1-4 Vertical Zones

1. Head and Neck, Shoulder Girdle
Reflexzones of head  and neck are found in the area of all phalanges of all toes. The big toe represents the head with the brain and the neck, the 2nd and 3rd toes represent the eyes and the teeth and nerves, the 4th and 5th toes represent the ears and teeth and nerves.

The first traverse line on the foot passes through the distal part of the joints of all metatarsal bones with all basic joints of the phalangae and represents the line of the shoulder girdle. (see  diagram) 

2. Thorax Reflexzones to the organs and structures of the upper thorax  down to the diaphragm line   are found in the anatomical region of the 5 proximal parts of the  phalange/ metatarsal joints of both feet. 

3. Upper Abdomen
The reflex zones of the upper abdomen between diaphragm line and waist line are found from the proximal part of the phalangal/metatarsal jointline to the Lisfranc's joint line, including all metatarsal bones. 

4.  Lower Abdomen, Pelvic, Hips, Legs and Feet The reflex zones of organs and structures of the lower abdomen and pelvic are found over the area of the tarsal bones up to and including the outer and inner malleoli and represent the pelvic floor and hip joints.

The calves and the feet are alongside the Achilles tendon to the insertion of the soleus. 

Thus dividing the feet into imaginary vertical and horizontal zones makes it very easy to relate every spot of the body  to its reflex zone of the feet.   The vertical lines divide the body equally and bilaterally as they run from head to foot and do not cross over the neck as the nerves do.
Only exemption – everything that is above the PNA (posterial horn of the spinal cord) has its effects on the other side.    

The Sitting Body in the Feet .... in the seminar booklet only

This term was first found by Hanne Marquardt, who, by systemizing the foot reflexology card, visualized, that the structure of the sitting body had a lot in common with the structure of the feet. Especially when you look at the feet of a lying person (from the sole perspective)  it's easy to imagine the "sitting body in the feet". The big toe represents the head (the little toes just spread the picture, subdividing eyes, ears, teeth, nerves, etc the lateral basic joints of the little toes represent the shoulder joint, the phalangal-metatarsal joint area represents the chest and the arch region represents the upper and lower abdomen, and the heel region contains the pelvic region and the hips and the region above the malleoli represents the thighs. So, especially for the beginner it is much easier to find every spot of the body by means of that picture.

How to perform a Treatment 

First, it is important, that the environment is good for a disturbance-free treatment. So, for instance, a Health Fair or something similar is not a good place, because both, the patient's and reflexologists mind get too much distracted. A room, where you can close the door, a pleasant temperature and sufficient, not blinding light makes it much easier to concentrate on the treatment. I found it in the many years of my practice  very helpful to have the patient lay on a massage table with an adjustable headrest, that I could watch the expression on the face, and, besides that, it makes it also easier for the patient to see what's going on and comment it. Background music can shut off outside noises and some patients relax easier with a nice, soothing music. A blanket to cover the patients body will keep him/her comfortable, in case no infra-red ceiling lights are installed.  Before starting the treatment, the patient should know what Foot Reflexology is, that it sometimes might cause some pain and that this pain could be  a hint of the body,  to work gently on this area.

Some US state laws forebid a massage practitioner or physical therapist to diagnose or treat illnesses. Educate the patient beforehand, that you will operate in accordance to the law only. Medical professionals like medical doctors, naturopaths, osteopaths and chiropractors may use the whole range of diagnostic and treatment procedures that the feet offer. 

Starting the Treatment

Let the patient lay down on the massage table or, if you are doing housecalls, his/her bed or favorite armchair. See that the patient's  neck and the knees are supported well by a half-roll cushion or a rolled up blanket, so that he/she can relax. To make your patient breathe freely, encourage him/her to loosen constricting clothes such as belts, brassieres, corset, collar or tie and see that all the backpockets of trousers are emptied. Now the patient should be in a convenient position, so he/she experiences no muscle tension on any place of the body.    Grip Sequence
The first touch of the feet should be gentle, but firm and include some light strokes alongside the arches and the upper instep (dorsum of the feet) thus to introduce yourself to the patient's feet. There are several grip techniques as follows:  In order to perform foot reflexology , it is necessary to follow proper procedures. First, the therapists hands must be positioned in a relaxed way by getting a support on the forearm, e.g. by resting the forearm on the end of the massage table. The patient's feet are to be held in a natural, loose and relaxed position. The therapist's thumb adopts a special position facing the fingers,   or cradles one heel in his/her hand and has the other one  free for the different techniques. It is very important, that during the whole session the therapist's hands don't loose contact with the patient's feet. The thumb-walking or holding  can be done in way or direction that suits the therapist. So, it doesn't matter where you start or whether you work from the left to the right , from the toe towards the heel or vice versa. After some practice every therapist will work out his/her own procedure, that enables him/her without omitting any section of the foot, to work the whole area. In terms of techniques there are two different ways to approach the reflex-zones of the feet.  Thumb Walking (stimulating)
Thumb walking is applied, when there is a zone, that shows a lack of energy. The thumb or gthe finger of the therapeut is moving smoothly in a “caterpillar mode” It's very important, that the therapist's thumb movement is not abrupt, to avoid unnecessary pain for the patient. So, in my basic seminar I always emphasize first on the the correct movement of the thumb. As there is always a chance of misunderstanding in describing a procedure theoretically, I rather show it practically.   Holding (sedating) On any point, where there is already an excess of energy, and these are mostly the very hard and painful zones on the foot, I found it always very helpful to sedate that point first by holding it. This means, that the therapist applies a light, tolerable pressure on the zone and holds it until there is a "reaction-pulse" indicating, that the zone loosens up. As this is very relaxing,  it is often necessary to do some stimulating thumb-walking afterwards to reinstall the normal energy-level.  At the end of the treatment the therapist always checks whether the former painful zones have normalized. He/she  ends the treatment with light strokes over the whole feet and, if desired, puts the palms of  his/her hands on the soles of the feet,  to let the energy flow freely between patient and therapist. This gives very often a sensation of warmth and comfort and is a very nice way to end a treatment.  By doing this a sensitive therapeut can also  determine, whether the energy pathways are clear now.

Treatment Procedure

As mentioned before, it is not important where to start the procedure, as long as all zones get touched. For a first treatment it might be helpful to have some kind of a schedule that no zone gets omitted. On all further treatments  the therapist might find his/her own way to proceed, meeting more the actual needs of the patient's reflex zones.

Treatment schedule for a first treatment 

Head, Spine
First, the therapist contacts the feet with some firm, but gentle strokes, then the left hand cradles the patient's left heel while the right hand starts slowly thumb-walking over the head zones. If a painful area is found there, the therapist holds it until he/she feels a "reaction pulse" and proceeds down the neck zones, spreading out to the shoulder, arm and hand zones on both sides, then switching to  the thoracic spine, the lumbar spine, the os sacrum and the coccyx and the hips Also here, when he/she finds a painful area he/she holds it till the "reaction pulse" is felt. Then the hands switch, which means, the right hand now holds the patients right heel, and the same procedure as with the right foot takes place on the left foot. Then  both feet are put down on the table and both therapist's hands work the sinus and throat- zones, the eye-zones, the ear-zones the tooth zones on both feet. If this has been found already very painful, the therapist gives the patient a break with some gentle strokes and palming (flat hands on the soles, letting the energy stream)

Next he/she proceeds with the hormone points  ---Holding continuously the pituitary gland, because it is the master gland, the thyroid, incretoric pancreas, adrenals, female resp. male reproductive glands are checked and – if necessary worked on.

In the 2nd seminar I will show you how to empty ovarian cysts, or benign breast cysts.

After working the hormone zones, the chest area with bronchi, esophagus, heart and lung and diaphragm (Solar Plexus) are gently worked through, considering, that the diaphragm always requires a holding, sedating procedure.

To give the patient another little break the therapeut may include some breathing techniques,
•    rhythmically stimulating the solar plexus zone in a   soft and gentle way to make the patient breath consciously   or
•    by pulling the heels while inhaling and pushing the sole while exhaling,  to deepen the breathing or
•    pushing the feet gently sideways while inhaling and letting loose while exhaling to widen the chest
In the 2nd seminar I will show how to distinguish the heart valves and to work on these.

Upper Abdomen
Then the upper abdomen  gets worked on first on the left foot with the hiatus and the upper stomach and then the right foot with the lower abdomen and the duodenum, the pancreas head, the liver and the gall bladder. Sometimes it is very helpful on painful stomach zones to hold the nervus phrenicus point while holding the stomach zone. Then the therapists hands switch again to the left foot and work the spleen zone.

In the 2nd seminar I will show how to treat hyperacid stomach and heartburn, how to close the cardia and open the pylorus to treat. You will also learn the correlation of heartburn and sleeping apnoe.

Lower Abdomen
After the upper abdomen the therapist works the small intestine zones vertically over both feet  and  then, starting on the right foot, he/she proceeds  with the ileocoecal valve, the ascending colon, half of the transversus colon - switches to the left foot and works the other half of the transversus colon and the descending colon and the anus zone.
In the 2nd seminar I will show how to decongest the pelvic an help with hemorrhoids and venous congestion

The pelvic area on the heels are treated while cradling one foot in the therapeuts hand, while the other hand works on  Uterus/resp Prostate gland, Ovary/Testis and the Fallopian tubes/resp inguinal tubes and the urinary bladder.

In the 2nd seminar I will show you how to assist childbirth,how to empty ovarian cysts and how to treat incontinency (urine and stool)  

Ending the treatment

Now, that all zones are "treated" the therapist checks again all points that had been found painful, and in case they are painful again, he/she holds them until the "reaction pulse" is felt. Then he/she gently strokes over both feet and puts the palms of the hands to the soles of the feet and lets the energy flow.
In the 2nd seminar all the muscles zones are shown and the correlation to the posture. With this you’ll be able to dissolve the so-called Stress Pattern on the back.

A first treatment lasts normally about 45 to 60 minutes, but time can be exceeded,  if a very sensitive patients requires a lot of breaks, during which soothing strokes help him /her over the experience of  some painful zones.
Be always aware that everybody has a different pain threshold. Educate the patient beforehand, that you will rather stop the treatment then to overwhelm him/her.

It is important for the therapist to know, that patients with a very sensitive autonomous nerve system cannot take a hard treatment. So the intensity of the therapists grip sequences must adapt to that fact. The first sign that the patient's feet give, when a treatment is too hard, is a light sweating after a painful zone has been discovered. There are, of course patients with already sweaty feet when the feet only get touched - this is a sign that the treatment should be done very lightly in order not to overwhelm the autonomous nervous system.
An experienced therapist can influence the autonomous nervous  system, so that the heavy swetting subsides. This will be subject to be shown in the 2nd seminar

Another sign, that the patient shows, when the treatment is too hard, is a chill or even shivering. Then the therapist should give the patient a break and apply only gentle strokes and palm to sole holdings until the symptoms have subsided and rather stop the treatment and let the patient rest, nicely covered with a light blanket.

In general a patient should be educated beforehand what kind of reactions might occur during or after a treatment with foot reflexology. It does not always happen that any of the reactions occur, but it is always better to let the patient know beforehand  what  kind of reactions can happen.

The most common reactions are listed below:
 *increased amounts of urine being eventually darker   as usual
*increased and sometimes offensively smelling stools, accompanied by flatulence  *cleansing of the mucosa membranes of thenose, throat and lungs, eliminating a lot of
  mucos through a running nose, catarrh or a throat clearing cough  *flaring up of an old disease which has previously been suppressed and which may heal  
 completely after a healing crisis

Only if a patient is aware of that possibility, he/she will understand what is going on in the body, and he/she will not misinterpret these reactions as a new disease.
It is recommended to check with the patient and ask him/her the next day after the treatment how he/she feels. If a strong reaction has occured,  it is better to wait 2-3 days until the symptoms subside before scheduling another treatment. A patient who has been experiencing a heavy reaction can be assured, that the next reaction he/she might face, will probably be not that heavy

Treatment Frequency
After every treatment the question arises,  when and how often it should be repeated . There is a general rule, that a chronic disease requires bigger gaps between the treatments. Acute diseases require that the treatments might be repeated more often, like day by day treatments over a short period..

Health Maintenance
A treatment cycle can be considered finished, when all the zones are free of pain and the patient enjoys excellent health. Some people take foot reflexology as a very helpful tool for health maintenance and they are right. A foot reflexology treatment every 4 to 6 weeks (even if there is no discomfort felt) helps preventing illness . Very often the feet show beforehand if there is something coming up (ie a muscle tension or a sore throat, to name only some) Then this gets treated, as if the disease was already there, which means the zones get worked on until they are not painful any more.     

Interpretation of  Abnormal Foot Reflexology  Zones 

I am very well aware, that it is tricky to describe how a zone feels and state, what's the matter with that zone and in general, what the "feet tell". As a naturopath in Germany, there hasn't been any problem in diagnosing and treating people with foot reflexology. Being a massage therapist in the US, there is no legal way to use these diagnostic skills, but having the knowledge helps performing a good treatment.

That is the message to all health professionals, who are not allowed to diagnose or treat:

It is in any case better to know what you are doing, even if you are not allowed to tell your patient what's the matter with him/her . The health professional, who is entitled by law to diagnose and treat will find foot reflexology a very helpful diagnostic and therapeutic tool

Big Toe

Puffy brain  zones indicate a congestion of blood or liquid  in that area, causing high pressure within the skull,  whereas very lean, sometimes shrunk zones indicate poor circulation in that area. So, the puffy zone is worked on with more holding, while the shrunk zone is worked on with stimulating thumb walking.

In the 2nd seminar you will learn how to use the zone more specific with the carotis to increase or decrease the blood flow and how to work on the drain point of the ventricles. Same goes for working with the cerebellum, pons, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, the  precentral gyrus and nervus phrenicus….

Pituitary gland
If the patient suffers a hormonal imbalance of any kind, the pituitary gland zone makes a needle sharp sensation when getting touched. The experienced therapist feels it kind of sticking out from the surrounding brain zones and holds it in conjunction with every hormon point he/she works on during the treatment.
Inner Ear
The inner ear zones feel very sharp, as if  there was an exostosis on that part of the toe, when it is inflamed or not working properly, thus causing ringing of the ears, inner ear dizziness etc. The way to work on those zones is, first to hold that area until a light reaction pulse is felt,  and then work them with small thumb walking steps through and hold them again, the reaction pulse should be stronger then.

 The sinus zones , if congested, can feel very painful and should not  be approached  with full pressure. There again the therapist can feel as if the distal joint was enlarged in that area. These zones get worked in a circular motion in order to encourage the body to drain the sinuses. Mostly the patient starts swallowing mucus that is running down the rear of his/her throat pretty soon, indicating, that the drainage works. When the zone feels softer the therapist checks by holding whether he/she can feel the reaction pulse. If so, the pain in that zone should be gone. 

The tonsil- and throat- and lymph gland-zones can feel very puffy when the patient's body is fighting off an infection. In order to make the lymph flow work better these zones get worked with light thumb walking from the distal to the proximal  area of the lymph zones. It is often found, that this procedure makes an acute swelling go down very soon, sometimes even during one session. After the thumb walking isn't painful any more the therapist again checks on the reaction pulse. A laryngitis makes a very sharp sensation at the distal end of the metatarsal bone (larynx zone)  and requires only holding until the reaction pulse is felt.

The little Toes 2/3

The Eyes
The eye zones  can be extremely painful when the patient suffered strain on his/her eyes or has frequent or acute headaches. It is very important then, that the therapist first holds the zones,  and only when the pain in the zones has subsided, he/she does a very gentle thumb walking or circulation movement on this little area. If the patient suffers from an inflammation in the eyes (conjunctivitis, uveitis, iritis, etc.) no thumb walking should be applied at all,  in order not to further irritate that area. The treatment of this area is done, when the reaction pulse is felt and the zone isn't painful any more.
In the 2nd seminar you will learn how to lower the pressure within the eye (Glaucoma) and how to drain the clogged tear canals (“dry eyes”)   

The little Toes 4/5

The Ears
The ear zones often feel sometimes already sensitive or painful, when a patient is only sensitive to wind (often found on persons who have a tonsillectomie in their history). An acute middle ear infection makes very painful ear zones and should be approached only by gentle holding. The zones are done, when the reaction pulse is felt and the patient indicates that the zones are no longer painful.

Deafness and hearing problems are more related to the acoustic nerve and will be taught in my 2nd seminar

Eustachian Tube
The zone for the Eustachian Tube  is felt painful, when the patient experiences a clogging of his/her ears when changing the altitude or with the slightest cold. It also relates to clogged sinus zones. First a holding and then  a milking movement helps clearing this zones. The movement, as it goes over all toes, starts at the inner ear section, towards the 4th toe. When the reaction pulse is felt, the zone shouldn't be painful any more. 

The teeth
The tooth zones feel painful when there is caries that already attacked the nerve of the tooth. The zone then feels very sharp and requires a gentle holding . The reaction pulse is felt together with a subsiding of the pain in the zone and the toothache simultanously. Zones of extracted teeth feel kind of "empty" at that zone and differ from the areas where teeth are found. (It takes of course some experience to learn how to interpret an extracted tooth) There is no way to determine from the feet only, whether the upper or lower tooth is involved. Paradontosis  makes either puffy or shrinky feeling zones that are only lightly sensitive over the whole tooth zone area. A light circular motion emphasises more circulation in the gum area. 

Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland shows an eventual dysfunction either as a very hard, circumscribed area on the thyroid gland zone, when the patient suffers from Hyperthyroidism or as a dull feeling puffy zone, when the patient's thyroid function is too low. Then, while holding the pituitary gland zone,  the hard zone on the thyroid area requires a holding only, whereas the puffy or dull zone gets stimulated. Here also, the reaction pulse indicates when the zone is done.

The parathyroid  (epithel corpusculi) is very distinctively felt, when there is an imbalance in the body's calcium metabolism. A firm holding (sedation)  of this point can sometimes create a heat flush as if calcium was administered by iv shot. It is a very powerful point to regulate the calcium metabolism  and it takes sometimes only a few seconds to normalize that area.

In the 2nd seminar I’ll show, what major role this little corpusculis are playing in the autonomous nervous system.

The Chest

The bronchial zones feel very puffy or even lumpy if there is congestion in the chest area, like bronchitis or asthma bronchiale. First  the therapist holds every single spot in that area found to be painful until the pain subsides and the reaction pulse is felt.  Then the same points get stimulate lightly by means of a milking motion (proximal to distal) This sometimes can provoke some coughing and is a sign not to overdo it. In general it is good, when the patient is able to cough up mucus, which had been "stored" in the bronchial area.
Mammary Glands
The mammary glands zones can be very sharp circumscript and feel like a tiny pebble if there is a lump in the breast.  This is a condition, that should be looked at, by an experienced health professional.

In the 2nd seminar there is adequate training how to empty benign breast cysts.

The heart zones feel either puffy or very hardened if there is a heart problem. They get generally worked with very gentle thumb walking and, while holding the single spots for some seconds, the reaction pulse should be felt.

In the 2nd seminar, there is shown the zones for the heart valves, the zones for the conduction system

The lung zones can feel either puffy or hardened too, indicating, that there is either an inflammation (puffy) or degeneration (emphysema = hardened) disturbing the normal function of the lung. People, breathing not deep enough can show a relatively small lung zone, that is kind of elastically but hard. Then the diaphragm zone should be included in the treatment imediately. While the puffy lung zones require a holding first and a thumb walking afterwards, the hard zones require a vigorous thumb walking in order to clear the alveoli. Here the same as with the bronchi, a too vigorous motion might cause some coughing and the therapist has it literally in his hands to control that. The lung zones also show if there had been previous inflammations as the tissue in that area is kind of hard (indicating a scar zone) but not painful to the patient. These parts get lightly stimulated then, but the therapist has to check by all means with the patient beforehand, that there is no history of Tubercolosis, as pocketed Tb zones shouldn't be touched at all!
In the 2nd seminar the lining of the lungs (pleura) and its relation to thoracic pain will be discussed and the adequate treatment will be shown.

The esophagus zone is only experienced as painful, if there is either an inflammation by frequent heartburns or at it's lower end, if there is a hiatus hernia.

The treatment of the Hiatus Hernia is shown in the 2nd seminar.

Diaphragm – Solar Plexus
The diaphragm zone is used to calm down the patient by gently pressing the solar plexus point while the patient inhales and releasing it while he/she exhales.
Also see the other “Breating Exercises”

There is an extremely easy treatment of acute and chronic hiccups. This is subject to the 2nd seminar 

The Upper Abdomen

The upper Stomach, Cardia,
The cardia zone is always very hard and painful,  when the patient suffers from anorexia. This zone then requires sedation only.
The upper stomach zone often indicates if the patient reacts to stress with  his/her stomach. Then the zone feels hard or stretched and is very sensitive to touch. A light reduces the  tension there and  the pain, felt at the first touch,  subsides.

In the 2nd seminar,  the introduction of the Nervus phrenicus,  is opening a whole new dimension in treating the digestive tract.

The lower stomach, pylorus
The lower stomach zone can show scar tissue zones if there is a history of stomach ulcers. An acute gastritis zone is extremely painful in this area and requires gentle holding only until the pain subsides and the reaction pulse is felt. Very often the patient feels immediate relief from stomach pain and nausea. This area may by no means be stimulated if there are syptoms of a gastritis, as this might cause heavy vomiting! 

A sluggish and enlarged lower stomach zone indicates, that there is possibly a stomach ptosis and requires light stumulation by thumb walking movements. 

The pylorus zone feels hard, if there is a tendency of holding food too long in the stomach.

The treatment of babies with pylorus dysfunctions (pylorus cramps) will be subject in the 2nd seminar

For the duodenum zone, the same is valid as for the lower stomach zone. Never stimulate a duodenum zone when the patient suffers a duodenitis or ulcers. The painful area  will be held only until the reaction pulse is felt. 

Pancreas excretoric (caput)
The pancreas head zone often feels hard and painful, when people eat too much (animal)  protein. Then the zone is treated by holding and subsequently, after the reaction pulse is felt, by light stimulating thumb walking.

An acute case of pancreatitis (accompanied by heavy vomiting, exhaustion and pain) can give the same "picture" of the zone. As a first aid it can be treated by gentle holding, but, even if the patient feels relief, he/she should be urged to see a doctor or go to a hospital for this illness immediately, as this can very quickly turn into a life threatening condition.

Pancreas incretoric  (cauda)
The pancreas cauda zone feels hard and painful, when the patient suffers from an imbalance in the sugar metabolism (hypoglycemia) The zone then gets  only a sedation, as there is excess energy in that area anyway. The zone is done when the reaction pulse is felt.
 A patient suffering from diabetes shows very sluggish but painful zones in the pancreas cauda zone and has in advanced cases of diabetes a very hard foot in general  (like made of wood) Here the pancreas zone gets a light stimulation by gentle thumb walking motions, whereas all the other  zones get more of a holding.  At the same time, while working on the pancreas cauda zone, the pituitary gland point should be held in sedation. Foot Reflexology doesn't cure diabetes, but it helps, within the body's possibilities, to manage the sugar metabolism in a better way. 

The liver  zone can give very different pictures: A small and hard feeling liver zone is mostly related to a hardening of liver tissue (liver cirrhosis). In this case a change from thumb walking to holding and thumb walking again and holding again adds more energy to the liver. The zones found, can range from "numb" to very painful (where the patient might bet that the therapist is working with fingernails). On subsequent treatments the motion part of the treatment can be done more vigorously, but it should always within the  patients tolerance! While doing the first or second or even third treatment there might be no reaction pulse at all, indicating, that the body is still having a hard time with this condition.

 A sluggish and sometimes enlarged liver zone indicates that the liver is stressed by working on too much toxins. Then a thumb walking motion (can also create the "nail feeling") helps the liver eliminate the toxins  better. When the reaction pulse is felt, the zone is done.
 Patients with hepatitis should be urged to see a doctor for supervision, if the therapist is not entitled to treat. As an auxiliary treatment, the liver zone gets worked on by just holding every spot of the liver zone until the reaction pulse is felt.

Gall bladder
The gall bladder zone can feel really hard if there is a tendency to cramp, or if the gall bladder is irritated,  or inflamed. This area gets treated then only by holding that zone until the reaction pulse is felt.

If the patients medical history reveals, that gall bladder stones are involved, the zone often feels as if there was tiny gravel in that zone-area. As there is a too big chance that the gall pathways might get seriously hurt by trying to expel a gall bladder stone, I don’t recommend at all to work the gall bladder zone when gall bladder stones are involved.

The kidney zones feel extremely painful and hard, when there is the slightest irritation in the kidney area. Then these painful zones should only get treated by light holding until the reaction pulse is felt.

People, who have the bad habit of drinking hardly any liquid during the day, sometimes experience a painful kidney zone while the zone feels sluggish . Then the whole urinary tract system  gets treated by thumb walking the kidney zone, the ureter zone and the bladder zone.  The therapist should suggest, that the patient drinks enough water.

If a kidney stone is involved, there is the same valid as mentioned for gall bladder stones. This condition should be left to the doctor's attention.

To help to get rid of a stuck kidney stone in the ureter, can be done under a doctors surveillance and in a hospital only. In the 2nd seminar I will show the technique.

Adrenal Glands
The adrenal gland zones feel painful, when the function of these glands is disturbed. These zones are always treated in conjunction with the pituitary gland zone and are lightly stimulated, when they are depleted and are held only if too much stress made them feel hard. The zone is done when the reaction pulse is felt.

The spleen zone is painful when the immune system is challenged or when the heart is weak.

In the 2nd seminar the distinction between virus and bacterial infects and the adequate treatment of the heart will be taught.

The Lower Abdomen

The Small Intestine
The small intestine zone can be either very hard when a tendency to convulsions or constipation is involved (BTW, those people should never take herbal laxatives) Or the zone feels very sluggish and dull when a sluggish constipation is resulting from too slow peristalsis. While the hard zones get a holding only, the sluggish zones get intensive thumb walking treatments within the patients pain tolerance.. The results on both conditions are always very satisfying for the patient. 

Ileocecal Valve
The ileocecal valve and the appendix zone are painful,  when the patient either suffers from an appendicitis or when there are adhesions after surgery. While a light irritation in that area can be successfully treated by holding that zone, a patient with an acute appendicitis should be submitted to a hospital immediately. A simple appendicitis can turn into a life threatening condition in a very short time. 

Large Intestine
The large intestine zone can show two different pictures: First,  there is the sluggish feeling, not painful zone that indicates that there is a constipation caused by  a too slow     peristalsis. These zones can be a little bit painful at the curves, where the  colon ascendens merges to the colon transversus or where the colon transversus merges into the colon descendens. These zones get vigorously worked on by thumb walking and by milking the whole area from the iliocoecal valve to the anus zone. Second, the hard and painful zones for the colon get treated by holding only, as the tendency to cramp doesn't require any additional stimulation. The zones are done when the reaction pulse is felt.

In the 2nd seminar the “emptying” of  diverticula and the relation between an uneven filled colon (ascendens or descendens)  and chronic lower back pain is discussed and the adequate treatment is shown.

The Pelvic Area
The rectum and anus
The anus zone feels hard and painful when the patient suffers from hemorrhoids. In order  to allow the painfully filled blood vessels to empty, the zones get treated only by a gentle holding. Hemorrhoids always should lead the therapist's attentention to the liver, as the congestion of the venous blood may result from there.

In the 2nd seminar the relation between portal vein and hemorrhoids will be discussed and the adequate treatment will be shown. Same goes for the treatment of stool incontinency and the de-congestion of the pelvic.

The bladder zone feels painful when the bladder  is irritated or inflamed. A firm holding can be experienced as very painful, and sometimes the patient may burst out in sweat.  Once the reaction pulse is felt, the pain should be gone on the zone and in the bladder. A patient having frequent bladder irritations or inflammations should get weekly treatments, where the bladder zones (in the inflammation free intervals) get worked on with light thumb walking, to restore a good circulation in the bladder area.

Incontinency of the bladder occurs for different reasons and can be treated successfully with foot reflexology.. The treatment will be subject in the 2nd seminar

The uterus zone feels very hard when the patient suffers from menstruation cramps. A holding until the pain subsides,  and a light thumb walking afterwards  restores good circulation in the uterus area,  eases acute cramps and prevents future cramps if the treatment is repeated over months always some days before menstruation.

 Women with a history of miscarriages or inability to conceive might try European Foot Reflexology, because a better circulation in the abdominal area and a better function of the hormone glands normalizes the function of the reproductive system. The treatment procedure is the same, a changing from holding to thumb walking to holding, etc.

 A treatment of the uterus zones should also always include the pelvic floor zones.

The 2nd seminar will include the techniques used while giving foot reflexology in the delivery process

The fallopian tube and ovary zones are very painful and feel very sharp when an irritation or inflammation of the ovaries and/or fallopian tubes is involved. Then they get treated by holding only and in case that the therapist is not entitled to treat diseases he/she should submit the patient to a gynecologist's care. Foot reflexology may accompany a doctor's treatment,  as it helps normalizing the function.

 In case of a dysfunction of the ovaries (late or no menstruation, too slow or too heavy menstruation bleeding, moods during ovulation, PMS) the ovaries get treated in conjunction with the pituitary gland and are stimulated and then sedated until the reaction pulse is felt.
The zones are done when the reaction pulse is felt
Narrow fallopian tubes can be addressed with European foot reflexology.  To empty ovarian cysts has become a specialty of european foot reflexology. Both subjects will be discussed and treatment will be shown in the 2nd seminar

Prostate Gland
The prostate gland zones can feel enlarged and hard when the prostate gland itself is enlarged (prostate hypertrophy). A first light and then vigorous thumb walking or circular motion in that zone helps improving the circulation and after regular weekly treatments the prostate gets smaller and softer again and so does the zone . The prostate zone get s always treated in conjunction of holding the pituitary zone on the same side.
 An inflammation of the prostate gland permits only a holding of the zone until the reaction pulse is felt. The pain, experienced by the patient can be very sharp but should subside after some seconds.
Urge the patient to see a doctor for that condition!

The testicle zones get worked on in conjunction with the pituitary gland zone and get stimulated in cases of dysfunction, showing infertility or impotence. 

Bone  Structure 

Going with the picture of the "sitting body in the feet", the bone structure can be found on the feet as well.  Head
The skull is found at the zones of the big toe, the basis of the skull is found at the zones at the plantar side of the interphalangeal joint of the big toe and the zones for the mastoid bones are represented by the medial part of the interphalangeal joint of the big toe.

The spine zones are found alongside the medial arches of both feet, starting beneath the interphalangeal joint proceeding alongside the medial metatarsal bones, the medial aspect of the first cuneiform bone and the medial aspect of  one third of the  scaphoid bone and the  medial part of the calcaneum.
 The zone for the cervical spine, starting  beneath the medial interphalangeal joints and ending at the  metatarsal-phalangeal joints on both feet can be subdivided in seven sections, thus showing the reflex zone for each vertebra.
 The zone for the  thoracic spine starts at the distal part of the first metatarsal bones and ends at the metatarsal-cuneiform joints on both feet and can be subdivided in twelve sections, thus showing the reflex zone for  each thoracic vertebra. The zone for the lumbar spine starts at the medial aspect of the first cuneiform bones proceeds to the distal halves of the scaphoid bones on both feet and can be subdivided in five sections, thus showing the reflex zones for each lumbar vertebra.
The zone for the os sacrum and coxyc is found at the heel

Shoulder Girdle
The zone for the clavicula is found at the lateral part of the phalangeal-metatarsal joints of the big toes on both feet.
The zone for the shoulder joint is represented by the fifth phalangeal-metatarsal joint, the distal lateral part of this joint represents the acromio-clavicular joint.

The zones for the upper arms is represented by the fifth metatarsal bones of both feet, the zone for the elbows are found at the joint from the metatarsal and cuboid bones, the forearm is found  alongside the calcaneus, and the wrist and handbones are found at the meeting point of calcaneus and talus.

The zones for the rib cage cover the whole area formed by the metatarsal bones on the dorsal aspects of the feet. 

Pelvic Girdle
The zone for the pelvic girdle extends over the area of the tarsal bones and heel,  up to and including the outer and inner melleoli on both feet. The hip zones are found underneath the outer melleolus at the very proximal spot of the calcaneus, the trochanter major is represented by the outer malleolus. 

The femur zones  are to a large extend found on the tibia. The indirect knee zone is found on the lateral rim of the heel, the direct knee zone is found about 4 finger widths up from the distal part of the tibia. The calves can be foundalongside the Achilles tendon and the feet are found at the insertion of the Soleus.

Interpretation of abnormal Zones

The  zone for the base of the skull hardly shows any abnormities, unless the patient has a history of a skull fracture. If the patient suffers from cervical spine syndrome the zone for the base of the skull gets treated first by holding and then by light thumb walking.

Mastoid Bone
The zone of the mastoid bone is very often found extremely painful in cases of an otitis media. In that case these zones get treated by firm holding only until the "reaction pulse" is felt. Of course the ear zones and the zones for the eustachian tubes get worked then the same way.

Cervical Spine
 The zone for the cervical spine  is already painful, if there is only a light tension in the neck. Sometimes, as discussed in the section about the thoracic spine zone or the lumbar spine zone, only one side of the zone seems to be really painful. This indicates either a wrong posture or a scoliosis or a torticollis syndrome. In order to calm down the pain, the neck zone gets treated by holding and subsequent thumb walking.

The movability of the cervical spine
The phalangeal-metatarsal joint, representing the junction from the seventh cervical vertebra and the first thoracic vertebra, offers the therapist a good opportunity to check the movability of the neck. The therapist holds the big toe like a champagne cork and tries to move the big toe gently in a circular motion. If there is, for instance, an  inability to turn the head towards the shoulder, it shows  by the big toe on that very side not being able to perform that circular motion. The right side of the neck corresponds with the right foot and the left side of the neck  with the left foot. A cracking noise while doing the circular motion  indicates, that either the cervical neck is ready to adjust itself, once the muscle and bone zones are treated and relaxed, or that after the foot reflexology treatment the  spine should be readjusted by a health professional. The hallux valgus, called bunnion, always indicates, that there is a neck problem. It is impossible to state what came first, the bunnion, alternating the posture and thus creating the tension in the neck, or the neck problem that shows as a strong reflex zone on the relative area. If the bunnion is inflamed is will not get touched during reflex zone therapy, as well as any other inflamed or injured spot on the foot is left out in the treatment.

The Shoulder
 The shoulder zone can be either very hard and the fifth phalangeal metatarsal joint be rather stiff, which indicates  that there is possibly an arthritis on the corresponding shoulder joint, or it can be very sharp feeling, indicating an inflammatory process in the shoulder. The treatment for the arthritis shoulder is first a holding to alleviate the pain, and then a thaumb walking around the whole zone on the plantar as well as on the dorsal part of the feet. The inflammation zone requires a holding only until the reaction pulse is felt. After the zones do not feel painful anymore, the therapist can try to readjust all basic joints of the little toes, as this also gives a reflex relief to the shoulder girdle. The procedure, how to do this is impossible to describe, so it will be shown in the foot reflexology courses. A shoulder which tends to subluxation, gets a different treatment: there the whole shoulder girdle area gets  treated with circular movements and vigorous thumb walking. With a short holding the therapist checks whether the reaction pulse has arised and if so, the zone is done. A tendency to shoulder subluxations needs treatments every other week over a long period.

The elbow  zone can feel very sharp and painful, when a so-called "tennis elbow" is involved. There the elbow zone is treated by holding only, in conjunction with the corresponding nerve zones

The forearm, wrist and hand zones feel painful and sharp, when the patient  suffers from a tendovaginitis. Then the zones get a holding step by step, always making sure, that the reaction pulse is felt before another point is approached. These zones get always treated in conjunction with the corresponding nerve zones (see chapter about nerves)

Thoracic Spine
The thoracic spine zones can often show a different picture on either foot. So, for instance the right side feels very painful and hard whereas the left side doesn't  feel painful at all. Then the zones get treated with thumb walking on the pain-free side and with holding on the painful side. Such a difference often indicates, that there is something wrong with the patient's posture, if the painful area remains bound to one foot only, or that a scoliosis in involved, if the painful zones seem to "jump" from the left neck to the right throacic spine zone...

Lumbar Spine
 The same goes for the lumbar spine zones, but then the painful sensation seem to jump to the other side. So, if there was a left side of the cervical spine, a right side of the thoracic spine and a left side of the lumbar spine more painful than the other side, we talk about a "stress-pattern" on the back, that is typical for a scoliosis
The treatment of of dissolving the stress üpattern on the back will be subject in my 2nd seminar

The Pelvic
 The pelvic zone feels on one side hard and painful if one of the above mentioned patterns is involved, as the problem mostly starts from there. Here also, the hard side gets more a holding and the soft side gets more of a stimulating (thumb walking) treatment. If there is a hip problem, like arthritis, or a different length of the legs, the pelvic area also shows  one side harder and more painful than the other and gets treated as mentioned above.

The complete alignment of the body with european foot reflexology  will be subject in my 2nd seminar

The Hip
The hip zones get very painful if the patient suffers from arthritis. It is hardly possible to determine whether  the inflammatory or degenerative type of arthritis is involved, as both diseases create the same "picture" . The zones get treated by holding firmly the hip point until the pain subsides and the reaction pulse is felt. As a change in the hip joint affects the whole environment like pelvic, thighs and knees, these zones get treated as well.

The Knee
The knee zones feel painful as well, when  arthritis (inflammatory or degenerative) is involved. The treatment is the same as mentioned in the section about the hips. Sometime patients complain about pain in the knees and the zone doesn't feel painful at all. Then it is important to check on the hip zones , as a knee pain often is related to a change in the hip joint(s).

This booklet should provide a basic understanding on how

european foot reflexology works.

Book # 2 is in the works and will follow soon.

Copyright of the revised version is with
Ulla Meyerhof